Author Guidelines

1. Registration

Authors who wish to submit their work for evaluation to A&R should register to the platform.

Registered users can track the progress of their manuscripts; receive automatic notices for new publications; and partake in an ever-expanding academic community on agricultural, rural and farmers' issues and policies. A&R’s vision is the development of the Scholar Community Center (SCC) as a change-maker for agriculture, rural areas, and farming/farmers.

At SCC, we respect your privacy; A&R is committed to protecting the privacy of its authors, readers, reviewers, and editors and their contact information will only be used during the editorial procedure.

Please consider registering now; we promise you it is a quick and seamless process.

2. Introduction

Agricultural & Rural Studies (A&R, ISSN 2959-9784) is an international multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary platform for communicating advances in fundamental and applied studies on contemporary agricultural, rural and farmers' issues and policies to revitalise rural development.

A&R is a fully Open Access (O.A.) journal with no Article Publishing Charges (APC) for the first four years. A&R seeks to publish Perspective, Review, Original Research, and Commentary Articles.

2.1 Article Types

Below, we provide some information on the article types that A&R publishes to help authors familiarise themselves with the possibilities.

2.1.1 Perspective Article

Perspective articles provide a forum for authors to discuss models and ideas from a personal viewpoint. Perspectives typically range from 2,000 to 4,000 words (including the abstract, references, and figures). They should consist of (1) a short, pithy title; (2) an abstract (max. 250 words); (3) references (max. 35 items); and (4) up to two figures or tables.

2.1.2 Review Article

Review Articles are overviews of a specific field of scientific literature. They aim to synthesise and evaluate recent primary literature on a topic, address controversies or provide a comprehensive list of references. Review Articles should not exceed 10,000 words (excluding references) with up to 100 references.

2.1.3 Original Research Article

Original/Research Articles are full-length scientific publications of original (i.e., unpublished) research. They should not exceed 8,000 words (excluding references) and a maximum of 12 images. Research articles over 8,000 words will only be accepted subject to Editorial decisions on needing a lengthier publication.

2.1.4 Commentary Article

Commentaries are short, narrowly focused articles of contemporary interest, usually commissioned by journal editors, serving as science critiques. They can discuss a variety of topics: (1) previous research published in scientific journals and/or scholarly books; (2) current research trends; (3) emerging empirical phenomena and issues; and (4) policies on relevant agriculture, rural areas and farming/farmers-related topics. They should not exceed 1,000 words, with a maximum of 10 references (no figures or tables).

2.2 Template

A&R believes that authors should be informed on the layout of their publication as early as possible in the process. The template is a facilitator of a speedy process. We provide a well-designed and easy-to-follow template for M.S. Word, which you can find here:  (Template) M.S. Word

Moreover, A&R recommends EndNote as a reference manage; you can find our EndNote template here: (Template) EndNote

The references in the text (and the bibliography) may appear as field codes (marked with a gray background) if you use EndNote. Make sure that all field codes and hidden links are removed from the manuscript in this case.

3. Before You Start

3.1 Manuscript Submission

Submission of a manuscript to A&R implies that (1) the work under consideration has not previously been published; (2) it is not being considered for publication elsewhere; and (3) its publication has been approved by all coauthors and relevant authorities/institutions where the research was performed. Should compensation claims arise, the publisher will not be liable.

3.1.1 Permissions

Authors must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) before submitting their papers if they wish to incorporate figures, tables, or text passages already published elsewhere. It is also necessary to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. If no such evidence is provided, it will be assumed that the material originated from the authors.

3.1.2 Online Submission

To submit a manuscript, please click the hyperlink: "Submit Manuscript" and follow the instructions.

3.1.3 Source Files

Please ensure that all relevant editable source files are included with every submission (including later revisions). Failure to submit a complete set of editable source files will result in your article not being considered for review. A&R accepts manuscripts only in a common word processing format, such as .DOCX (M.S. Word).

3.2 Author Principles

A&R is committed to maintaining the highest level of integrity in its published content. Author(s) should follow A&R's publication ethics statement and adhere to multiple author principles and good practices.

3.2.1 Author Clarification

A&R and the SCC assume manuscript submissions have the full support and agreement of their author(s), including consent from responsible authorities at the institutional/organization level (especially in cases of sensitive or funded research).

Authors are advised to adhere to the guidelines for authorship applicable to their specific field of research. The following guidelines should be followed in the absence of specific guidelines:

All authors included in the submission:

  • Contributed substantially to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data, or the creation of new software for the work.
  • Drafted or critically revised the intellectual content of the work and approved the final, published version.
  • Agreed to be accountable for all aspects of the work, including the accuracy or integrity of any of its parts.

3.2.2 Disclosures and Declarations

A&R requests that all authors provide information regarding: (i) funding sources; (ii) financial and non-financial interests; (iii) approval from an ethics committee for research involving humans or animals; (iv) informed consent for research involving human participants, and a statement regarding the welfare of animals if the research involves animals (as appropriate).

The decision to include such information depends on the Journal's and the article’s scope. If the submitted manuscript has implications for public health or general welfare, all authors are equally responsible for including the appropriate disclosures and declarations.

3.2.3 Data Transparency

All authors must ensure that all data and materials, as well as any software applications or custom code used to support their published claims, are consistent with field standards. 

3.2.4 Role of the Corresponding Author

One author is designated as the Corresponding Author, acts on behalf of all coauthors, and ensures that any questions relating to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the manuscript are addressed appropriately.

The responsibilities of the Corresponding Author are:

  • Before submission, ensure that all listed authors have approved the manuscript, including the names and order of the authors.
  • Manage communication between the Journal and the coauthors.
  • Disclose any unpublished material (e.g., manuscripts in press) included in the manuscript in a cover letter to the Editor.
  • The manuscript should include proper declarations and be transparent regarding data statements from all authors as appropriate (see above).
  • A Contact or Submitting Author may manage all communication between the Journal and all coauthors during submission and proofing. Please ensure that the Corresponding Author is clearly identified in the manuscript in this case.

3.2.5 Author Contributions

As part of the Cover Letter at the submission stage, a CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) author statement should be provided, which will appear at the final section of the published paper. CRediT supports individual author contributions, reduces authorship disputes, and facilitates collaboration. It allows authors to share an accurate and detailed description of their diverse contributions to the published work. CRediT in no way changes the Journal’s criteria to qualify for authorship.

The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the descriptions are accurate and agreed upon by the authors; The role(s) of all authors should be listed (authors may have multiple roles). According to CRediT taxonomy, fourteen distinctive roles can partake in research output: Conceptualisation, Data curation, Formal Analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Resources, Software, Supervision, Validation, Visualization, Writing–original draft, Writing–review & editing.

Here is a sample CRediT author statement:

Yi Mon Thu: Conceptualization, Data Curation, Calculation, Software, Validation, Visualization, Investigation, Writing-reviewing & editing; San San Htwe: Methodology, Investigation; Nyein Nyein Htwe: Supervision; Kathryn Gomersall: Supervision.

3.2.6 Affiliation

Authors should use the institution where most of their work was conducted as their primary affiliation. If an author has moved subsequently, the current address can also be included. A&R does not accept changes to affiliation and address after the articles’ publication.

3.2.7 Change to Authorship

A&R strongly recommends that authors ensure the correct author group, the Corresponding Author, and the author order at the time of submission. Adding or deleting authors, changing the corresponding author, or changing the sequence of authors after a manuscript has been accepted for publication are not acceptable.

Please ensure all author names are present, correctly spelled, and that addresses and affiliations are current. Please note that author names will be published exactly as they appear on the accepted submission!

Alteration to the authors at the revision stage is generally not permitted. However, A&R understands that it may be justified in some cases. In case such an action is needed, the authors should argue their case to the journal. A&R is not obliged to accept the change but will consider each case separately.

3.2.8 Author identification

A&R recommends that authors use their ORCiD when submitting their articles; authors can also opt to obtain an ORCID ID as part of the submission process.

3.2.9 Deceased or Incapacitated Authors

If an author dies or becomes otherwise incapacitated during the writing, submission, or peer-review process, and any coauthors feel it is appropriate to include them to the publication, they should obtain approval from a (legal) representative.

3.2.10 Authorship Issues or Disputes

A&R cannot investigate or adjudicate an authorship dispute during peer review or after acceptance and publication. The authors will be asked to resolve the dispute on their own. A journal reserves the right to withdraw a manuscript from the editorial process or raise the issue with the authors' institution(s) and adhere to its guidelines if they are unable to do so.

3.2.11 Confidentiality

Authors should treat Communication with the Journal confidentially, including correspondence with direct representatives such as Editors-in-Chief and/or Handling Editors and reviewers' reports, unless explicit consent has been received to share such information.

3.3 Cover Letter

A Cover Letter must accompany each manuscript submission, concisely explaining the paper's significance, situating the findings in the context of existing work, and discussing how the paper fits within the A&R's scope.

We ask authors to acknowledge any previous manuscript submissions to A&R, by providing the previous manuscript I.D.; this will facilitate your current submission process. Please refrain from discussing reviewers in the Cover Letter; proposing/excluding reviewers should be commented on the submission system.

All cover letters are required to include the statements:

  • Confirmation that the manuscript is an original research and has not been previously published or is under consideration by another journal.
  • Confirmation that the manuscript and its authors have no competing interests to disclose. All authors should have approved the manuscript and agree with its submission to A&R.
  • A CRediT(Contributor Roles Taxonomy) author statement.
  • Up-to-date contact information for the corresponding author and any coauthors.

3.4 Scientific Style

  • Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (S.I. units).
  • Nomenclature: Insofar as possible, authors should use systematic names similar to those of the Chemical Abstract Service or IUPAC.
  • Formulas, symbols, etc., should be represented in standard mathematical notation: (a) Italicise single letters that represent mathematical constants, variables, and unknown quantities; (b) Roman/upright for numerals, operators, punctuation, and commonly used functions and abbreviations, such as cos, det, or exp, lim, log, max, min, sin, tan, d (for derivative); (c) Vectors, tensors, and matrices should be bolded.

3.5 Use of Inclusive Language

Inclusive language acknowledges diversity, conveys respect for different groups of people, is sensitive to differences, and promotes equality of opportunity. No assumptions should be made concerning the beliefs or commitments of any reader as part of the manuscript’s content. A&R will not accept any indications or references to individual superiority to others based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability, or medical condition. The author must ensure that their writing is free of bias, stereotypes, slang, references to dominant cultures, and/or cultural assumptions. As a guideline, we recommend avoiding the use of "he, she," or "he/she" as default/wherever possible to maintain gender neutrality. The use of descriptors of personal attributes such as age, gender, race, ethnicity, culture, sexual orientation, disability, or health condition should be avoided unless they are relevant and valid. In terms of coding terminology, we recommend that offensive or exclusionary terms such as "master", "slave", "blacklist", and "whitelist" be avoided. The use of alternatives such as "primary", "secondary", "blocklist" and "allowlist" may be more appropriate and (self-explanatory). These guidelines are meant as a point of reference to help identify appropriate language but are by no means exhaustive or definitive.

3.6 Editorial Independence

SCC does not interfere with editorial decisions, as editorial independence is paramount. Our independent editorial boards review and assess all articles published by SCC, and SCC staff are not involved in manuscript acceptance decisions. In making an editorial decision, we expect the academic editor to consider the following factors:

  • The suitability of selected reviewers.
  • The adequacy of reviewer comments and the author(s)’ response.
  • The overall scientific quality of the paper.

SCC policies are informed by the mission to make science and research findings open and accessible as widely and rapidly as possible, this is also reflected in every aspect of the operation of A&R.

3.7 Promoting Inclusiveness, Equity and Diversity Within A&R Journal

The Managing Editors are responsible for encouraging the Editor-in-Chief and Associate Editors to appoint a diverse group of experts to serve on the Editorial Board. Regardless of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, age, religion, or socioeconomic status, we strive to create equal opportunities for all. Our workplace is free of discrimination, and the editors of A&R adhere to these principles.

4. Preparation for Submission

4.1 Title Page

Please make sure your title page contains the following information.

4.1.1 Title

The title should be accurate, informative and should introduce the research work to the fullest extent, but in a concise manner. The title gives readers the main take-away of the entire research and its key findings and cannot contain the brand name.

4.1.2 Author information

  • The name(s) of the author(s)
  • The affiliation(s) of the author(s), i.e. institution, (department), city, (state), country
  • A clear indication and a current, active e-mail address of the corresponding author
  • (If available) the 16-digit ORCID of the author(s)

For authors that are (temporarily) unaffiliated we will include only the city and country of residence will be included, without any further information (e.g., their personal email) unless specifically requested.

According to the COPE position statement on AI tools, AIGC cannot perform the role of authors and cannot be listed as authors. The use of AIGC should be fully and accurately disclosed and stated in the Methods or Acknowledgments section in an open, transparent, and detailed manner.

4.1.3 Abstract

Please provide an abstract (max. 250 words). An abstract is a concise summary of the details within a paper, allows readers to get the gist or essence of your research, and should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

N.B.: In cases a longer abstract is needed, we encourage authors to comment on the reasons. A&R promises to review such requests in a case-by-case basis.

4.1.4 Keywords

Please provide 4 to 6 keywords. Selected keywords should reflect the title and content of the manuscript and will be used for indexing purposes.

4.1.5 Statements and Declarations

The following statements should be included under the heading "Statements and Declarations" for inclusion in the published paper. Please note that submissions not including relevant declarations will be  deemed incomplete and returned to the authors.

Conflicts of Interest: Authors must disclose financial or non-financial interests directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication. Please refer to "Conflicts of interest" section below for more information and guidance.

4.2 Text

4.2.1 Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in M.S. Word format (or similar).

  • Use a plain font (e.g., 10-point Palatino Linotype) for text.
  • Use italics for emphasis.
  • Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
  • Do not use field functions.
  • Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
  • Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
  • Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
  • Save your file in .DOCX format (MS Word 2007 or higher).

4.2.2 Headings

Please use the decimal system of headings (up to three levels).

4.2.3 Abbreviations

Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

4.2.4 Footnotes

A&R uses a footnote, not endnote, system.

Footnotes can be used to give additional information, including citations. However, they should not consist solely of a reference citation; they should never include the bibliographic details of references (this should appear in full only on the references section at the end of the manuscript); and should not contain any figures or tables.

Footnotes to the text should be numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the article's authors should not have reference symbols.

4.2.5 Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. Authors are encouraged to follow the funder’s specific guidance on acknowledgments (if applicable).

4.3 In-Text Citations and References

Reference Style

A&R uses “APA” style, following the American Psychological Association (APA)’s latest edition of the APA Publication Manual (7th Edition; 2019). You can access the full guidelines here: APA Guidelines (7th Edition).

For convenience, we provide some examples below:

In-Text Citations

Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. For example:

Single author: (Pulighe, 2023).

Two authors: (Belletti & Schneider, 2023).

Three or more authors: (Fan et al., 2023).

Reference List

In the list of references, only works that are cited in the text and have been published or accepted for publication should be included. Unpublished works and Personal communications should only be mentioned in the text. Please note references to webpage and unpublished articles are not accepted and references to non-English publications should be kept to a minimum since the majority of readers do not have easy access to them.           

References should be listed alphabetically following the last name of the first author.

The title of the journal and the title of the book should be italicized.

It is recommended that you always include DOIs in your reference list as full DOI links (e.g. "”).


Journal article

Fan, S., Zhu, Y., & Fang, X. (2023). Big food vision and food security in China. Agricultural & Rural Studies, 1(1), 0001.


Xu, H., & Zhang, H. (2002). Study on forest biomass model. Yunnan Science and Technology Press.

A chapter in an edited book

Paniagua, A. (2022). The histories of new (geo)politics of smart villages communities in a global world. A contribution to geographical debate. In S. Patnaik, S. Sen, & S. Ghosh (Eds.), Smart cities and smart communities: Empowering citizens through intelligent technologies (pp. 69–79). Springer Nature Singapore.

Masters' theses or doctoral dissertations

Kabir, J. M. (2016). Factors influencing customer satisfaction at a fast food hamburger chain: The relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Publication No. 10169573) [Doctoral dissertation, Wilmington University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.


National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Preprint Article

Hampton, S., Rabagliati, H., Sorace, A., & Fletcher-Watson, S. (2017). Autism and bilingualism: A qualitative interview study of parents’ perspectives and experiences. PsyArXiv.

Conference Proceeding

Duckworth, A. L., Quirk, A., Gallop, R., Hoyle, R. H., Kelly, D. R., & Matthews, M. D. (2019). Cognitive and noncognitive predictors of success. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 116(47), 23499–23504.

 4.4 Artwork Guidelines

  • All figures should be provided electronically.
  • The graphics program used to create the artwork should be indicated.
  • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Name your figure files with "Figure" and the figure number, e.g., Figure1.eps.

4.4.1 Combination Art

  • Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc.
  • Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

4.4.2 Halftone Art

  • Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
  • If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this using scale bars within the figures themselves.
  • Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

4.4.3 Line Art

  • Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
  • Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size.
  • All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide.
  • Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

4.4.3 Color Art

  • Online publication of color art is free of charge.
  • Ensure that the main information will still be visible in black and white in the print version. In black and white, many colors cannot be distinguished. A simple method of determining whether the necessary distinctions between the colors remain is to make a xerographic copy.
  • Do not refer to color in the captions if the figures will be printed in black and white.
  • Color illustrations should be submitted in RGB format (8 bits per channel).

4.4.4 Figure Lettering

  • In order to add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (both sans serif fonts).
  • Your final-sized artwork should maintain a consistent lettering size, usually 2–3 mm (8–12 points).
  • There should be no variation in type size within an illustration. For example, do not use 10-point type on an axis and 18-point type for the axis label.
  • We advise against effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
  • Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.

4.4.5 Figure Numbering

  • Arabic numerals should be used to number all figures.
  • All Figures should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance (Figure 1,Figure 2, etc.).
  • It is always advisable to cite figures in numerical order in the text.
  • Lowercase letters should be used to indicate figure parts (b, c, d, etc.).
  • The consecutive numbering of the main text should continue if an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures.

4.4.6 Figure Captions

  • Each figure should have a concise caption, describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the manuscript's text file, not the figure file.
  • Figure captions begin with the term Figure. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
  • A punctuation mark should not be placed after the number or at the end of the caption.
  • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
  • Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

4.4.7 Figure Placement and Size

  • Figures should be included within the text itself. It is only necessary to submit the large figures separately from the text when the file size of the manuscript prevents it from being uploaded.
  • Be sure to size your figures in accordance with the width of the column when preparing your figures.
  • For large-sized journals the figures should be 84 mm (for double-column text areas), or 174 mm (for single-column text areas) wide and not higher than 234 mm.
  • For small-sized journals, the figures should be 119 mm wide and not higher than 195 mm.

4.4.8 Permissions

If you intend to include figures already published elsewhere, you must obtain the permission of the copyright owner(s). It is important to note that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that SCC will not be able to refund any costs associated with obtaining these rights.

4.4.9 Accessibility

To ensure that people with disabilities are able to access the content of your figures, please ensure that

  • All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use text-to-speech software or text-to-braille hardware).
  • Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (colorblind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements).
  • Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1.

4.5 Tables

  • Arabic numerals should be used to number all tables.
  • All Tables should be inserted into the main text close to their first citation and must be numbered following their number of appearance (Table 1, Table2, etc.).
  • A table should always be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order.
  • The table caption (title) should explain the components of the table for each table.
  • Please provide a reference at the end of the table caption for any previously published material.
  • Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for

4.6 Supplementary Material

SCC accepts electronic multimedia files (animations, movies, audio, etc.) and other supplementary files to be published online in conjunction with an article. Such material adds dimension to the author’s manuscript, as certain information cannot be printed or is more convenient to access electronically.

Please read the Journal's Research data policy before submitting research datasets as Supplementary Information. We encourage research data to be archived in data repositories wherever possible.

4.6.1 Submission

  • Please provide all supplementary material in standard file formats.
  • In each file, please include the following information: article title, journal name, author names, affiliations, and e-mail address of the corresponding author.
  • It should be noted that larger files may require very long download times and that some users may experience other problems during the downloading process.
  • The maximum file size for high resolution (streamable quality) videos is 25GB; the maximum file size for low resolution videos is 5GB.

4.6.2 Video, Audio, and Animations

  • Aspect ratio: 16:9 or 4:3
  • Maximum file size: 25 GB for high resolution files; 5 GB for low resolution files
  • Minimum video duration: 1 sec
  • Supported file formats: avi, wmv, mp4, mov, m2p, mp2, mpg, mpeg, flv, mxf, mts, m4v, 3gp.

4.6.3 Captions

  • For each supplementary material, please supply a concise caption describing the content of the file.

4.6.4 Text and Presentation

  • Submit your material in .DOCX or .DOC file format.
  • Figures can also be combined in a .PDF file.

Specialized Formats

  • Specialized format such as .pdb (chemical), .wrl (VRML), .nb (Mathematica notebook), and .tex can also be supplied.

4.6.5 Collecting Multiple Files

  • Collecting multiple files in ZIP or RAR is possible.
  • Supplementary material must be cited in the text as a citation in a similar manner to figures and tables.
  • Refer to the supplementary files as “Online Resource”, e.g., "... as shown in the animation (Online Resource 1)", “... additional data are given in Online Resource 2”.
  • Name the files consecutively, e.g. “ESM_1.mpg”, “ESM_2.pdf”.

4.6.6 Spreadsheets

  • Spreadsheets should be submitted as .csv or .xlsx files (MS Excel).

4.6.7 Processing of supplementary files

  • Any supplemental material received from the author will be published without editing, conversion, or reformatting.

4.6.8 Accessibility

Please ensure your supplementary files are accessible to people with all abilities and disabilities.

  • A descriptive caption accompanies each supplementary material in the manuscript.
  • No video files contain anything that flashes more than three times per second (to prevent seizures caused by such effects).

4.7 Research Data Policy and Data Availability Statements

Manuscripts submitted to A&R imply that all materials, including all raw data, will be made available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes without violating participant confidentiality.

4.7.1 Data availability

A Data Availability Statement must be included in all original research. If applicable:

  • The author(s) should provide information regarding the data source supporting the results reported in the article.
  • The statement should include hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study.

"Data" is defined as the minimal dataset necessary for interpreting, replicating, and building upon the findings reported in the article. Even if it is not possible to share research data publicly, for example due to compromise to individual privacy, the availability of data should still be specified in the manuscript along with any conditions for access. Data Availability Statement can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if multiple datasets are required):

  • The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS].
  • The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
  • The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON(S) WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC]. However, they are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
  • Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.  
  • The data supporting this study's findings are available from [THIRD PARTY NAME]. However, restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under licence for the current study and are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [THIRD PARTY NAME].

4.7.2 Data repositories

A&R strongly encourages that all datasets on which the paper's conclusions rely are available to readers. We encourage authors to ensure that their datasets are either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main manuscript or additional supporting files whenever possible.

General repositories – for all types of research data – such as Figshare and Dryad may be used where appropriate.

4.7.3 Data citation

A&R requires authors cite any publicly available data on which the paper's conclusions rely. Data citations should: (a) include a persistent identifier (such as a DOI) in full URL; (b) be included in the reference list using the minimum information recommended by DataCite; and (c) follow the journal’s house style.

4.7.4 Research Data and Peer Review

To ensure research quality A&R encourages peer reviewers to review the Data Availability Statement, where applicable. Reviewers should consider whether the authors have complied with the Journal's policy on data availability, and whether reasonable efforts have been made to make the data supporting the study's findings accessible for replication or reuse by other researchers. In order to evaluate a manuscript, peer reviewers may request access to underlying data (and code).

4.8 Funding

Authors should provide clear identification of the financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article. Authors are also encouraged to describe briefly the role played by the sponsor(s) in study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, writing the report, and deciding to submit the article for publication. Similarly, authors should indicate if the funding source(s) did not have any such involvement.

4.9 Conflicts of Interest

Authors should avoid entering into agreements with study sponsors, both for- and non-profit, that interfere with authors’ access to all of the study’s data or interfere with their ability to analyse and interpret the data and to prepare and publish manuscripts independently when and where they choose.

All authors must disclose any relationships or interests that might inappropriately influence or bias their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include but are not limited to financial interests (such as membership, employment, consultancies, stocks/shares ownership, honoraria, grants or other funding, paid expert testimonies and patent-licensing arrangements) and non-financial interests (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, personal beliefs).

A&R offers an example of disclosure:

  • For Conflict of Interest:

Conflicts of Interest: [Author A] has received research grants from [Company A]. [Author B] has received a speaker honorarium from [Company X] and owns stocks in [Company Y]. [Author C] has been involved as a consultant and expert witness in [Company Z]. Author D is the inventor of patent X.

  • In the absence of a Conflict of Interest:

Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

4.10 Patents

It is not mandatory to include this section, but it may be included if the work reported in this manuscript has resulted in patents.

4.11 Appendix

Authors can include figures of replicates for experiments whose representative data is shown in the main text in an Appendix or as Supplementary Data (if brief). Similarly, mathematical proofs of results not central to the paper can be added as an Appendix.

All appendix sections must be cited in the main text. In the appendices, Figures, Tables, etc. should be labeled starting with “A”—e.g., Figure A1, Figure A2, etc.

 5. A Roadmap to Publication

A&R's publication roadmap is a collaborative, efficient, quality-assured journey from manuscript to publication. A&R adopts a double-blind peer review process to ensure quality. Moreover, the editorial team is supported by the tools built by the Public Knowledge Platform (PKP), ensuring seamless progress from manuscript submission to review and publication. Field experts, including the journal's editorial board and external discipline or subject-specific experts, perform the review process. Publication is subject to the evaluation of two independent reviewers and the editor’s final approval. The journal works on the premise of quality and quick processing times, looking at publication within three (3) months. A&R publishes four issues per year.

5.1 Login/Submit

After logging into the A&R website (, the corresponding or submitting author can follow the steps and upload the article. A manuscript should not have been under consideration or be submitted to another journal during the evaluation period.

5.2 Editorial Office Assessment

The Editorial Office checks that the paper adheres to the A&R’s Author Guidelines requirements. The quality of the paper is not assessed at this point. In detail, the Editorial Office:

(1) Conducts an initial screening of the paper and ensures which type of Perspective, Review, Original Research, and Commentary articles.

(2) Checks the abstract (max. 250 words), keywords (4 to 6) and article’s word limit according to the different types of articles.

(3) Checks the reference style. Articles submitted to the A&R should follow the APA citation/bibliography format.

(4) Ensures anonymity. As the A&R conducts a double-blink peer-review, submissions should be free of personal data (i.e., name, affiliation) or other indications of identity (e.g., footnotes, acknowledgements, self-citations. The submitted manuscript in .doc(x) format should uphold anonymity.

(5) Checks the cover letter.

(6) Conducts due diligence for academic integrity. Following the A&R's policy, the papers are checked for plagiarism using iThenticate. Papers with similarity scores of more than 30 per cent will be unconditionally rejected.

5.3 Appraisal by the Editor-in-Chief (EIC)

The EIC assesses the paper, considering its scope, originality and merits. The EIC may reject the paper at this stage. Article topics must be related to the A&R's Scopes. Irrelevant papers will be rejected and will not be considered for review.

5.4 External Evaluation (Double-Blind Peer-Review)

The Editorial Office invites scholars (faculty members at universities or professionals of research institutes) with the appropriate expertise for each submitted contribution. Potential reviewers should consider acceptance subject to conflicts of interest and availability. The process always involves two reviewers.

The Editorial Offices takes any possible measures to ensure the timely procedure from submission to publication, including but not limited to:

(1) Sending reminders to reviewers;

(2) Verify the review reports;

(3) Forwarding reports to the author(s);

(4) Ensure articles are revised accordingly.

Manuscripts must receive two positive reports to proceed to the next stage (Editorial Board). The work will be rejected if the author(s) do not submit the required revision within a specified timeframe. If the reviews differ widely, the editor may invite an additional (third) reviewer to get an extra expert opinion before making a decision.

5.5 Editorial Board Decision

Decisions of the editorial board members:

(1) The article has been accepted for publication; authors receive a certificate of acceptance.

(2) The article has been accepted with corrections (major/minor).

(3) The article is rejected.

5.6 Proofreading and Layout

Accepted submissions are sent to production. Upon acceptance, the authors are required to proofread their manuscript according to the A&R article format. A final check ensures correct grammar, adherence to proper referencing, and other style aspects. At this stage, no changes to the submission’s content are acceptable.

Professionals proofread the article, which is then sent for typesetting according to the journal’s house style. At this stage, we ask the authors to conduct a final check on the proofs, allowing minor adjustments (typos, punctuation, incorrect layout, omissions in references). Major revision that may affect the overall layout of the publication are not usually accepted unless there is a compelling reason.

5.7 Publication

Once cleared of all stages, the work is published on the A&R’s website under a full Open Access license.